Posts Tagged ‘aligizakis’


Posted on January 17, 2015

In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the pangs of a guilty conscience drive Lady Macbeth to madness. Her doctor remarks that medicine cannot cure a sense of guilt. “More needs she the divine than the physician.” Guilt overwhelms Lady Macbeth until she finally commits suicide at the end of the play.
Considering the powerful influence that guilt can have over a person, it is important to explore the origin and nature of this emotion in order to possibly gain some control over it. In this video, we will discuss Nietzsche’s theory concerning the origin of guilt, and we will also explain what it indicates for the future of mankind.
To feel guilty means to feel painful regret for some wrong committed. According to Nietzsche, the concepts of right and wrong arose with the development of societies. He describes guilt as a disease that humanity caught when it formed these social communities. “I look on bad conscience as a serious illness to which man was forced to succumb by the pressure of the change whereby he finally found himself imprisoned within the confines of society and peace.”
When man left the lawless wilderness and entered into societies, he entered into an entirely new world where his old instincts were worthless. Nietzsche compares this radical change experienced by man to the change experienced by the first sea animals to venture onto land. “It must have been no different for man, happily adapted to the wilderness, war, the wandering life and adventure than it was for the sea animals when they were forced to either become land animals or perish – at one go, all instincts were devalued and ‘suspended’. The poor things were reduced to relying on thinking, inference, calculation, and the connecting of cause with effect, that is, to relying on their mind, that most impoverished and error-prone organ!”
Man’s wild instincts, however, did not fade away. Instead, he was forced to turn his instincts for cruelty inwards because the new laws of societies prohibited violence. “Those terrible bulwarks with which state organizations protected themselves against the old instincts of freedom had the result that all those instincts of the wild, free, roving man were turned backwards, against man himself. Animosity, cruelty, the pleasure of pursuing, raiding, changing and destroying – all this was pitted against the person who had such instincts.”
After diverting his cruel instincts towards himself, man began to grow sick of existence. Nietzsche refers to this sentiment as the worst and most insidious illness ever to afflict man, and an illness from which man has yet to recover. “Lacking external enemies and obstacles, and forced into the oppressive narrowness and conformity of custom, man impatiently ripped himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed at himself, gave himself no peace and abused himself, this animal who battered himself raw on the bars of his cage and who is supposed to be ‘tamed’; man, full of emptiness and torn apart with homesickness for the desert, has had to create within himself an adventure, a torture-chamber, an unsafe and hazardous wilderness – this fool, this prisoner consumed with longing and despair, became the inventor of ‘bad conscience’.”
Despite the dismal diagnosis of civilized man’s illness, Nietzsche regarded the disease of guilt, like all other afflictions in life, to be an opportunity to enhance human excellence. To him, mankind’s ability to turn against itself is indicative of man’s potential to achieve something great in the future – to achieve the meaning of the earth – to achieve the birth of the Ubermensch. “The prospect of an animal soul turning against itself was something so new, profound, puzzling, contradictory and momentous that the whole character of the world changed in an essential way. Man arouses interest, tension, hope, almost certainty for himself, as though something were being announced through him, were being prepared, as though man were not an end but just a path, an episode, a bridge, a great promise.”
To conclude, Nietzsche asserts that a guilty conscience developed when mankind formed societies and established laws. These social institutions forced man to turn his cruel and wild instincts inwards against himself. When man finally overcomes his bad conscience – which is nothing more than contempt for life – he will be one step closer to giving birth to the Ubermensch.



Ο ιός του φόβου

Οι συμπολίτες μας δεν ήταν περισσότερο ένοχοι από άλλους, ξεχνούσαν μόνο να ’ναι μετριόφρονες, αυτό είναι όλο και σκέφτονταν πως όλα είναι ακόμα δυνατά γι’ αυτούς, πράγμα που προϋπέθετε ότι οι συμφορές ήταν αδύνατο να υπάρχουν. Εξακολουθούσαν τις εμπορικές συναλλαγές, ετοίμαζαν ταξίδια και είχαν τις απόψεις τους. Γιατί να σκέφτονταν την πανούκλα που καταργεί το μέλλον, τις μετακινήσεις και τις συζητήσεις; Νόμιζαν πως ήταν ελεύθεροι ενώ κανείς δεν μπορεί να είναι ελεύθερος όσο υπάρχουν συμφορές. [Αλμπέρ Καμύ, Η πανούκλα]
Διαδίδεται σαν αστραπή, κανείς δεν μπορεί να κάνει τίποτε πια∙ ο ένας κολλάει τον άλλον σχεδόν ακαριαία. Δεν υπάρχει πλέον τρόπος να ελεγχθεί η εξάπλωσή της. Δεν έχει βρεθεί το φάρμακο κι ίσως να μην προλάβει να βρεθεί, πριν αφανιστεί η ανθρωπότητα. Ο φόβος κι ο τρόμος κατακλύζουν τις συνειδήσεις. Η ακοή δεν είναι αρκετή για ν’ ακουστεί το τέλος που πλησιάζει. Φόβος για τον εαυτό και τον άλλο, το αγαπημένο πρόσωπο∙ κι απ’ την άλλη, τρόπος προστασίας δε διαφαίνεται στον ορίζοντα. Οι ειδήσεις δεν σταματούν να φτάνουν. Εσύ είσαι απ’ τους τυχερούς. Δεν κόλλησες ακόμη. Κι όσοι απ’ τους δικούς σου πάνε στη δουλειά, φαίνονται ακόμη καλά –φεύ! Προς το παρόν! Μην αποθρασύνεσαι! Έχε το νου σου! Ωστόσο, όλοι παίρνουν φάρμακα. Προληπτικά…
Σε κάθε γωνιά, λίγο να μη φυλαχτεί κανείς, καραδοκεί η μόλυνση απ’ τον ιό. Έρχεται πια από παντού. Παλιά ήταν τουλάχιστον μακριά. Το μαθαίναμε σα μια είδηση, που διαρκεί όσο ένα κλικ ή λίγα λεπτά δελτίου. Ούτε λεπτό ίσως. Ασήμαντη, μακρινή μόλυνση, που δε μας αφορά. Τώρα όμως, τώρα είναι παντού. Καλύτερα να μένουμε σπίτι, να μην κυκλοφορούμε πολύ. Είν’ επικίνδυνο. Και καθόλου, ει δυνατόν, να μην βγαίναμε στον επικίνδυνο τούτο κόσμο… Η μόνη ασφαλής μέρα είναι μια μέρα στο σπίτι. Ο κόσμος άλλαξε, δεν είναι πια όλα τόσο απλά. Έτσι είναι και πρέπει να το δεχτούμε όσο το δυνατόν ταχύτερα. Θα ζήσουμε κι αυτή τη φορά. Θα την περάσουμε και τη μόλυνση αυτή. Αρκεί να φυλαγόμαστε απ’ τους μολυσμένους. Αυτοί είναι ο κίνδυνος. Κανονικά θα πρέπει να τους απομονώνουν, να τους πηγαίνουν κάπου, τέλος πάντων, να μην κινδυνεύει όλος ο κόσμος.
Μ’ αυτή τη «λογική» πάνω-κάτω διαδίδονται αστραπιαία οι ειδήσεις μέσω του διαδικτύου και καλλιεργούνται οι αντίστοιχες αντιδράσεις. Τέτοιου είδους διαδόσεις διασπείρονται και προκαλούν πανικό, άλλοτε για τον Η1Ν1 ή για τις τρελές αγελάδες, την αρρώστια των πουλερικών ή το κουνούπι του Δυτικού Νείλου και σήμερα για τον έμπολα. Τελικά, ακόμη χειρότερη κι απ’ τη διάδοση της αρρώστιας γίνεται η διάδοση του φόβου. Ακόμη εντονότερος κι απ’ τον φόβο του θανάτου γίνεται ο φόβος της ζωής. Βεβαίως, για κάποιους προέχει το κέρδος, υλικό και άυλο. Αφ’ ενός θα παρουσιάσουν, ως εκ θαύματος, το τάδε εμβόλιο και το δείνα αντίδοτο, επιδιώκοντας το μεγαλύτερο δυνατόν οικονομικό όφελος. Αφ’ ετέρου, θα τραβήξουν το νευρικό σύστημα περαιτέρω, φέροντας πάλι τον έλεγχο και την ανάγκη για τάξη κι ασφάλεια ως δώρα σε εξαθλιωμένες συνειδήσεις. Η μεγέθυνση ενός φόβου, συμβάλλει άλλωστε στον αποπροσανατολισμό της προσοχής απ’ την ουσία των προβλημάτων. Και το μεγαλύτερο πρόβλημα είναι ότι γεννιόμαστε και πεθαίνουμε σκλαβωμένοι, με την υγεία μας να κρέμεται απ’ την ποιότητα του κλουβιού μας.
Όσο φοβόμαστε, όμως, όσο κλεινόμαστε, όσο μαζευόμαστε στο καβούκι μας, οι άλλοι προχωρούν. Κινούνται από κράτος σε κράτος, κλείνοντας συμφωνίες, τροφοδοτώντας τις αυτοκρατορίες τους με άρτο και θέαμα, για να διογκώνεται η αντοχή στον εγκλεισμό, μετατρέποντας το προσωπικό σύμπαν του καθενός, σε ένα λαγούμι με φόβους και μαγγανείες. Για την εξάπλωση του κρατισμού δε θα ανακαλυφθεί το φάρμακο από καμιά μεγάλη εταιρεία. Δεν μπορούμε να ζητάμε απ’ τους δεσμώτες μας να μας απαλλάξουν απ’ τα δεσμά που οι ίδιοι μας επέβαλαν. Το κλειδί είναι στο χέρι μας, αλλά τα μάτια μας θολά απ’ τις οθόνες δεν το βλέπουν.



This October, Australia’s largest performing writers program, Word Travels’ Story Fest, is taking on the international conversation surrounding refugees. For most Australians it is impossible to understand what it is like to have to flee your home country, blinded to what the future may hold.

Through the power of creative writing, Story Fest provides a voice to those who have transformed their challenges into influential stories, and is a platform to discuss past experiences with passion, vulnerability and raw authenticity.

The weekend extravaganza will consist of multiple poetry slams, forums, discussions and a special event entitled Writing Through Fences, which will open the Australian Poetry Slam National Final at the Sydney Opera House.
Featuring three refugee poets who sought asylum in Australia, Writing Through Fences is sure to spark heartfelt discussion among the audience and other competing poets. “You will hear from people who have travelled through the darkest places in the human psyche and have found poetry to guide them to sunlight,” said Creative Director of Word Travels, Miles Merrill.

Hani Aden is a Somali writer, who wrote from Christmas Island where she was held for 13 months. During her time in detention, Aden reached to poetry as an outlet to express her emotion and pain. “I thought expressing myself through the power of poetry and storytelling was the only way many of us could walk free in this land,” she explained. Aden is performing alongside Yarrie Bangura, a young refugee, who as a child fled civil war in Sierra Leone; and Kaveh Arya, who fled Iran and became a refugee in Turkey, until he and his family migrated to Australia in 1995.

While all three poets grew up surrounded by war and danger, they agree that by sharing their stories they are bringing to light the social and cultural issues that surround refugees and seeking asylum.

“I want to let many people know seeking asylum is not a crime,” said Aden. “Together we can make change because [it is] kindness [that will] keep the world afloat.”

“I think that’s a constructive way of drawing attention to a real problem, to a real situation which we are faced with in the world, as you know, the refugee crisis is evermore alive now,” said Kaveh Arya.

Arya grew up reading from one of the only books his parents kept – a book of poems. “It was one of the only books, that they kept, that I could actually read and sort of connect to, so I started reading that book at a young age and I fell in love with poetry that way,” he explained.

In his work, poetry is an afterthought. Instead Kaveh chooses to focus on his life experiences as the primary objective, which provide a unique and effective contribution to the international conversation surrounding human rights and refugees.

As a child, Yarrie Bangura fled from her home in Sierra Leone to Guinea, where she lived in a refugee camp with her family before migrating to Australia in 2004. For Yarrie, writing best expressed her pain and enabled her to escape all the terrible things from her past. “I felt like I always had to talk about my pain,” she explained. “I had to find another way to express my pain, which was through music and creative writing – poetry.”

Bangura writes short autobiographical poems and stories, and is one half of the band Sierra Sisters, whose music has featured on several commercials and Triple J Unearthed. Her work reflects the terrifying experiences that haunt her past, and bring to light the issues that many refugees are facing today.

“I never thought that it would get to that length, that people would be interested,” said Bangura. “I was doing it because it made me feel good and it was letting out and chucking away the things that I don’t want to remember anymore in my life – or at least I don’t want to deal with.”

Writing Through Fences is opening the Australian Poetry Slam National Final, one of the most anticipated events in Sydney’s literary and performance calendar. Over the weekend, 20 of Australia’s finest poets will speak, scream, whisper and shout their way to being crowned Australian Poetry Slam Champion.

The Story Fest will also include children’s activities ranging from workshops and events in which they will learn the art of creative writing.

Word Travels’ Story Fest, and Writing Through Fences in particular, is a not-to-be-missed opportunity to immerse yourself in eye-opening and inspirational, truth-telling tales. The festival will provide a new perspective of life, and the ongoing, international issues surrounding refugees. (NB)

Oct 9–11. Info:

Oct 9, 8pm. Sydney Dance Lounge, Pier 4/5, Hickson Rd, Sydney. $30+b.f.


City Hub’s pick of the festival:
Oct 11, 7pm. Drama Theatre, Sydney Opera House. $36-$44+b.f. Tickets:

Follow Kaveh Arya at:





Unfathomable night bitterness with no end
sleepless eyelid
pain is burnt before sobbing
loss bends before is weighed

moribund ambush
when the syllogism of its futile meander
is shattered on the apron of its destiny



Ανεξιχνίαστη νύχτα πίκρα δίχως άκρη
βλέφαρο ανύσταχτο
πριν βρει αναφιλητό καίγεται ο πόνος
πριν ζυγιαστεί γέρνει ο χαμός

καρτέρι μελλοθάνατο
σαν ο συλλογισμός από τον μάταιο μαίανδρο
στην ποδιά της μοίρας του συντρίβεται

~ ORIENTATIONS, Odysseus Elytis, translated by Manolis Aligizakis
~ ΠΡΟΣΑΝΑΤΟΛΙΣΜΟΙ, Οδυσσέα Ελύτη, μετάφραση Μανώλη Αλυγιζάκη