Archive for 25/02/2016

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Η ΝΥΧΤΑ άλλοτε στη λησμονιά κι άλλοτε σε πυρετικά ρόδα μας
έριχνε
σαν τη διωγμένη αγάπη, και τότε, πίσω απ’ το ανείπωτο, στέκε-
ται ακόμα πιο βαρύ
αυτό που πρέπει να πεις, κι ο νικημένος έβλεπε κι άλλον ένα ίσκιο
να πηγαίνει δίπλα του
γιατί δε χωρούσε τόση θλίψη σ’ έναν άντρα. Ώσπου το πρωί οι
ζητιάνοι
πανάρχαια μνηστευμένοι τις γωνιές των δρόμων, ξανάπαιρναν τα
δικαιώματά τους
κι έπρεπε σαν έναν άλλο, πιο μεγάλο ουρανό, ν’ αντέξουμε
την καθημερινή μας ιστορία.

 

THE NIGHT led us sometimes to forgetfulness and other
times into feverish roses
like the love you give up and then behind the unsaid heavier
stands
what you have to say and the defeated saw another shadow
that walked along with him
because such sorrow was too much for just one man. Until at dawn
the beggars,
since the ancient days engaged to the corners of the streets, reclaimed
their rights
and we had to endure our everyday history like a different, wider
sky.

 

~Τάσου Λειβαδίτη-Εκλεγμένα Ποιήματα/Μετάφραση Μανώλη Αλυγιζάκη
~Tasos Livaditis-Selected Poems/Translated by Manolis Aligizakis
http://www.libroslibertad.ca
http://www.authormanolis.wordpress.com

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Mahabharata

Posted: 25/02/2016 by vequinox in Literature

 

Mahabharata II

Accretion and redaction

Research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text. Some elements of the present Mahabharata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahabharata suggests the origin of the epic occurs “after the very early Vedic period” and before “the first Indian ’empire’ was to rise in the third century B.C.” That this is “a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B.C.” is likely. It is generally agreed that “Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would inevitably conform to changes in language and style,” so the earliest ‘surviving’ components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest ‘external’ references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini’s 4th century BCE grammar Ashtādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text probably reached something of a “final form” by the early Gupta period (about the 4th century CE). Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahabharata, commented: “It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a literally original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum. What then is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available.” That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is very extensive.

The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are commonly recognized: Jaya (Victory) with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyasa, Bharata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaisampayana, and finally the Mahabharata as recited by Ugrasrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses. However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81). The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva and the Virata parva from the “Spitzer manuscript”.The oldest surviving Sanskrit text dates to the Kushan Period (200 CE).

According to what one character says at Mbh. 1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another ‘frame’ settings of dialogues. The Vasu version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa. The astika version would add the sarpasattra and ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, introduce the name Mahabharata, and identify Vyasa as the work’s author. The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction. Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century.

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The snake sacrifice of Janamejaya

The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by “thematic attraction” (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have a particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana) literature. The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata’s sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.
Historical references

The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BCE) and in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4). This may mean the core 24,000 verses, known as the Bharata, as well as an early version of the extended Mahabharata, were composed by the 4th century BCE.
A report by the Greek writer Dio Chrysostom (c. 40 – c. 120 CE) about Homer’s poetry being sung even in India seems to imply that the Iliad had been translated into Sanskrit. However, scholars have, in general, taken this as evidence for the existence of a Mahabharata at this date, whose episodes Dio or his sources identify with the story of the Iliad.

Several stories within the Mahabharata took on separate identities of their own in Classical Sanskrit literature. For instance, Abhijñānashākuntala by the renowned Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa (c. 400 CE), believed to have lived in the era of the Gupta dynasty, is based on a story that is the precursor to the Mahabharata. Urubhanga, a Sanskrit play written by Bhāsa who is believed to have lived before Kālidāsa, is based on the slaying of Duryodhana by the splitting of his thighs by Bhima.

The copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533–534 CE) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) describes the Mahabharata as a “collection of 100,000 verses” (shatasahasri samhita).

http://www.wikipedeia.org

Αγαπημένα μου Cafe!

Posted: 25/02/2016 by vequinox in Literature

Παιδείας Εγκώμιον

Ένα γράμμα χωρίς αποδέκτη

Του Νίκου Τσούλια

     Είναι γνωστή η προσφορά σας στα ραντεβού των ανθρώπων, στο ξεκίνημα των γνωριμιών, στις πρώτες – ιδιαίτερα ερωτικές – συναντήσεις και στα συνακόλουθα σκιρτήματα αλλά και στην πιο οικονομική έξοδο και ψυχαγωγία για κάθε ηλικία.

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Παιδείας Εγκώμιον

Του Νίκου Τσούλια

clip_image001Όταν επιτηρώ στο σχολείο (ή παλιότερα στο πανεπιστήμιο), δεν μπορώ να μένω «κενός» χωρίς αναγνωστικά ερεθίσματα. Από την αρχή δίνω το στίγμα μου – στις περιπτώσεις που δεν με ξέρουν – και εποπτεύω δεσποτικά, με βλέμμα αυστηρό, χωρίς πολλά λόγια, γιατί τα λόγια δημιουργούν οικειότητα. Αυτό έχει σαν αποτέλεσμα να αποθαρρύνονται οι επίδοξοι αντιγραφείς (η αντιγραφή μού είναι μια μισητή πρακτική), να φεύγουν όσοι δεν έχουν διαβάσει και έτσι να αραιώνουν οι αίθουσες.

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Water From The Lion’s Mouth

Posted: 25/02/2016 by vequinox in Literature